Proximity/Near operators

Proximity/Near operators enable you to search for terms that are near or adjacent to each other within the text of the record. You may use proximity/near operators in Quick and Expert searches.

The NEAR command is used for searching terms that are near to each other in any order.

The ONEAR command is used for searching terms that are near to each in the order specified in the search query.

The proximity number signifies the maximum number of words that are indexed between the two words in the search query. For example, laser NEAR/4 diode will find the following examples:

If no number of words is specified in the proximity query, 4 is assumed. For example, laser NEAR diode is the same as laser NEAR/4 diode.

Example searches and their descriptions are shown below:

Example searches

Details

laser NEAR/4 diode

Searches for the word laser within 4 words of diode in any order

laser ONEAR/5 diode

Searches for the word laser within 5 words of diode in the order entered. The word laser will appear before the word diode in the search results.

laser NEAR/4 diode wn ABSearches for the word laser within 4 words of diode when both are in the abstract field
laser ONEAR/5 diode wn TISearches for the word laser within 5 words of diode in the order entered and when both terms are in the title field
space NEAR/0 stations Searches for the word space adjacent to the word stations and the words appear in any order

space ONEAR/0 stations

Searches for the word space adjacent to the word stations in the order entered

Proximity/Near operators and autostemming

Autostemming can be used with proximity operators since all of the terms are automatically stemmed. For example, electric ONEAR/0 guitars finds electric guitar, electric guitars, electrical guitar and electrical guitars.

NoteYou cannot use proximity operators with stemming unless all the terms are stemmed. There will be inconsistent search results if only specific search terms are stemmed in a search query. For example, $control ONEAR/0 drug or control ONEAR/0 $drug will provide inconsistent search results because not all of the search terms are stemmed in these cases. In order to provide consistent search results, autostemming must be enabled, or the search query must have all terms stemmed. For example $control ONEAR/0 $drug will produce consistent search results.

Proximity/Near operators and exact phrase searches

Using the ONEAR command does not always provide the same results as using the Exact Phrase search feature. Usually, the ONEAR/0 command is equivalent to an exact phrase search in that the Engineering Village search engine is looking for a phrase within a search query for both the exact phrase and ONEAR/0 searches. In some cases, using the ONEAR/0 command is not an equivalent search to using an exact phrase search as some fields have content with multiple values. The Engineering Village search engine looks for an exact match of the entire field value for the exact phrase search. However, it only looks for a match of each term in the ONEAR/0 search. There will be many more results when using the ONEAR/0 command than when using the exact phrase search for search queries using these fields. Refer to the Exact phrase searching help topic for further information.

Proximity/Near operators and truncation, quotation marks, braces

The NEAR and ONEAR commands do not provide consistent search results when working with truncation, wildcards, manual stemming, quotation marks, or braces.

Although there will be inconsistent search results using quotation marks or braces for NEAR and ONEAR, this is the only method that you can use to search the actual terms "NEAR" or "ONEAR" in a search query. As proximity operators, both NEAR and ONEAR are reserved terms for the Engineering Village search engine, and therefore double quotation marks or braces must be used to search these terms. Review the example searches listed below to construct valid search queries.

Example searches

Details

near edge x ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy

This is an invalid search query and will result in a syntax error since the term "NEAR" is located at the beginning of the search query and neither the term nor the entire query is enclosed in quotation marks or braces.

"near edge x ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy"

The first search term is "NEAR", but this is a valid search query since the entire search query is enclosed in quotation marks.

{near edge x ray absorption fine structure} The first search term is "NEAR", but this is a valid search query since the entire search query is enclosed in braces.
x-ray absorption near-edge structureThe search term "NEAR" is included in this search query, and is therefore dropped from the search query by the Engineering Village search engine since there are no quotation marks or braces. The search results will contain all the other terms in the search query except for the term "NEAR".
{x-ray absorption near-edge structure}The search term "NEAR" is included in this search query, and is not dropped from the search query by the Engineering Village search engine since the entire query is enclosed in braces. The search results will contain all the terms in the search query including the term "NEAR".

 

 

 

 

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